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Science:非洲野生动物对抗生素的耐药性

摘要 : 耐药细菌——如结核病和耐甲氧西林的金黄色葡萄球菌——的出现正日益威胁到全球范围的公众健康。

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耐药细菌——如结核病和耐甲氧西林的金黄色葡萄球菌——的出现正日益威胁到全球范围的公众健康。虽然许多研究已记录下了野生动物中的耐抗生素细菌 ,但这些微生物是如何产生的,以及它们是否会被传染给人类,我们对此仍知之甚少。野生动物可以自身发展出耐药性,但也可以通过暴露于人体排泄物或带有抗生素的农田地表径流而加速这种耐药性的形成。现在,一项新的研究发现,有很多种类的非洲野生动物带有耐药细菌,而且这些细菌同附近村庄居住的人类身上发现的很相似。2011年,研究人员收集了来自博茨瓦纳北部的18个野生动物种类的150个粪便样本,以及200个来自人类的样本,并测试了它们对常见的肠道细菌大肠杆菌的耐抗生素菌株。他们测量了对10种广泛使用的一线抗生素的耐药性,包括那些用来预防和治疗疟疾和肺结核一类疾病的抗生素。研究小组发现,超过40%的野生动物,包括豹、大象和鳄鱼,以及90%的被测人群都身带对至少一种抗生素耐药的大肠杆菌。研究人员在本月的《野生动物疾病期刊》上报告说。此外,超过10%的动物和和70%的被测人群对三种以上的一线抗生素有耐药性。分离出的人类和野生动物的大肠杆菌同时对同一批抗生素具有相似的耐药性水平 ,这些抗生素主要有氨苄西林、强力霉素、链霉素、四环素和甲氧苄啶/磺胺甲恶唑。多药耐药性在水生动物及靠近人群密集的村庄生活的那些动物中最为常见。

原文链接:

African wildlife harbors resistance to first-line antibiotics

原文摘要:

The emergence of drug-resistant microbes—such as tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus—is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Although many studies have documented antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild animals, how these microbes arise—and whether they can be transmitted to humans—is poorly understood. Drug resistance in wildlife can develop on its own, but it can also be accelerated by exposure to human waste or agricultural runoff with traces of antibiotics. Now, a new study finds a wide variety of African wildlife harbor drug-resistant microbes that are similar to those found in humans living in nearby villages. In 2011, researchers collected 150 fecal samples from 18 wildlife species and 200 samples from humans in northern Botswana and tested them for antibiotic-resistant strains of the common intestinal bacteria Escherichia coli. They measured resistance against 10 widely used first-line antibiotics, including those used to prevent and treat diseases like malaria and tuberculosis. The team found that more than 40% of wildlife—which included leopards, elephants, and crocodiles—and 90% of humans harbored E. coli resistant to at least one antibiotic, they report this month in the Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Further, more than 10% of animals and 70% of humans were resistant to three or more first-line antibiotics.Human and wildlife E. coli isolates also had similar levels of resistance to the same antibiotics—most commonly ampicillin, doxycycline, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug resistance was most common in aquatic animals and in those animals living near crowded villages. Researchers still can’t say for certain what the relationship is between human and animal resistance, but in this case they suspect a waterborne connection.

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