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当前位置: Science » 基因&蛋白 » Science:农耕如何改变欧洲基因组


摘要 : 8500年前,当来自近东地区的第一批农民到欧洲拉犁垦荒时,他们也随之带去了各种新的生活方式,他们甚至引起了基因的运动变化,改变了欧洲人的长相、消化食物的方式以及他们对疾病的反应。


8500年前,当来自近东地区的第一批农民到欧洲拉犁垦荒时,他们也随之带去了各种新的生活方式,他们甚至引起了基因的运动变化,改变了欧洲人的长相、消化食物的方式以及他们对疾病的反应。在今天发表于《自然》杂志的一项新研究中,一个国际研究小组对3000至8500年前居住于欧洲、西伯利亚和土耳其的230个古人的DNA进行了测序。他们的样本包括第一个接受测序的近东地区早期农民的DNA,比如曾被埋在安纳托利亚西北部,即今天的土耳其的Barcın Höyük的DNA。该研究小组今年早些时候报告了自然选择为何青睐白皮肤、高个子和可以消化牛奶中的糖分的基因。在今天这篇文章中,同一组研究人员为额外的一些骨骼的DNA测序后发现,向农耕过渡这样的进化也“选择”能够消化脂肪的基因,以及能够防止如结核病和麻风病这样的感染性疾病的免疫基因。有趣的是,该小组还发现了与腹腔疾病相关的两个基因变异体的传播。因为这些变体有助于补偿一种被称作麦角硫因的氨基酸中的与某些农业饮食相关的缺陷,所以也可能被自然“选择”存活了下来。但是这些变体也有副作用,它们会加重克罗恩病和其它腹腔疾病。


How farming changed the European genome


When the first farmers from the Near East plowed into Europe 8500 years ago, they brought with them more than a new lifestyle—they alsoset in motion changes in genes that altered the way Europeans looked, digested food, and adapted to disease. In a new study published inNature today, an international team sequenced ancient DNA from 230 people who lived 3000 to 8500 years ago in Europe, Siberia, and Turkey. Their sample included the first DNA ever sequenced from early farmers in the Near East, such as this one buried at Barcın Höyük in northwest Anatolia, in today’s Turkey. The team reported earlier this year how natural selecion favored the spread of genes for white skin,tallness, and to digest sugars in milk. For today’s paper, the same researchers sequenced the DNA from additional skeletons and found that the transition to farming also favored genes to digest fats, as well as immune genes that protected against infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. Interestingly, the team also found the spread of two gene variants associated with celiac disease. These variants may have been favored because they help compensate for a deficiency—associated with some agricultural diets—in an amino acid called ergothioneine. But the variants also have the side effect of boosting Crohn’s and other celiac diseases.

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