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Science:细菌正在肠道内的战争

标签:肠道 细菌 健康
摘要 : 我们肠道里的益生菌看起来很合作:我们为它们提供一个温暖且营养丰富的家,它们则协同工作帮助我们保持健康。

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我们肠道里的益生菌看起来很合作:我们为它们提供一个温暖且营养丰富的家,它们则协同工作帮助我们保持健康。但新的研究表明,当数以百计的微生物种挤在狭小的角落时,我们的肠内脏可能更像是一个战场而不是一个会议室。研究人员发现,肠道细菌不断向邻居宣战,可能是为了占据领地。研究团队将不同的脆弱拟杆菌菌株注入那些自身缺乏微生物的小鼠体内——脆弱拟杆菌是一种肠道寄居菌(如图)。他们对一段时间内的这些小鼠的粪便进行了分析,发现了菌株间相互攻击的证据。不同的脆弱拟杆菌菌株对相邻细菌注入的毒素组合是不同的。同一菌株的细菌会进行反击:它们对其同株兄弟分泌的毒素免疫。但不同种类的细菌或不同菌株的细菌会在攻击面前屈服,从而为发动进攻的菌株创造更多的空间来进行传播。研究人员今天在《美国国家科学院院刊》网络版上报告称,他们估计,在既定肠道内的每克粪便里,这样的毒素转移每分钟发生十亿次。然而,这是一种近战武器。交战的细菌彼此间必须发生实际接触。对于微生物来说,这种接触式的策略也许可以让它们在不影响远处那些可能有益的细菌的同时在周边划定领地。

原文链接:

Bacteria are waging war inside your gut

原文摘要:

The beneficial bacteria in our gut seem like a cooperative bunch: We give them a warm and nutrient-rich home, and they work together to keep us healthy. But with hundreds of microbial species crammed together in tight quarters, new research suggests that our intestinal innards might resemble a battlefield more than a conference room. Researchers have found that gut bacteria continually wage war on their neighbors, perhaps as a way to stake out space. The team injected different strains of Bacteroides fragilis, the species of gut-dwelling bacteria (pictured here), into mice that lacked their own microbes. When they analyzed the rodents’ stools over time, they found evidence that the strains were attacking each other. Different strains of B. fragilis inject different combinations of toxins into neighboring bacteria. Bacteria within the same strain fight back: They’re immune to the toxins secreted by their strain-mates. But different species or strains of bacteria can succumb to the assault, giving the attacking strain more room to spread out. Andrew Goodman of Yale University and colleagues estimate that a billion of these toxin transfers happen per minute per gram of stool inside any given gut, they report online today in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The weaponry only works at close range, however: The warring bacteria have to actually make contact with each other. The contact-based approach may be a way for microbes to stake out a space in their immediate vicinity without affecting faraway bacteria that could be helpful.

来源: Science 浏览次数:0

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