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Science:真菌孢子互相“交谈”来寻找伴侣

摘要 : 事实证明,即使无性真菌细胞也可以有社会性:随着它们长大并同彼此混合形成集落,它们会向一些周边同胞靠近,同时冷落其它的真菌细胞。

 事实证明,即使无性真菌细胞也可以有社会性:随着它们长大并同彼此混合形成集落,它们会向一些周边同胞靠近,同时冷落其它的真菌细胞。现在,研究人员正在研究这些微生物中的一种俗称红色面包霉的橙色、丝状真菌,并已经发现它们的孢子,也称无性生殖单元,如何进沟通的遗传基础。当这些孢子融合边缘上的蛋白开始形成并与15微米外的其它孢子的蛋白同时溶解时(如以上视频所见),交流便发生了。通过显微镜,科学家们对来自110种基因各异的野生菌的成对孢子之间的互动进行了观察。不相关的孢子仍会融合在一起吗?他们把这些孢子放进三个“交流小组”,即三组菌株,它们的孢子互动交流并朝对方靠近生长,并似乎同时忽视其它孢子。研究人员随后分析了它们的基因,并进一步将小组分开,直到总数为五,每个由一组三个基因区分开来。为了了解这些基因在孢子之间的交流中扮演什么角色,研究人员将一个菌株的基因替换成不同组的基因。然后,他们分析了变异真菌的行为。被改变的菌株表现得像新小组的一个成员,表明基因决定小组成员资格,研究人员今天在《PLOS生物学》网络版上报告说。这是科学家们几乎首次发现远距离交流的简单的、基因相似的生物体——与此相反,酵母和粘菌需要直接接触。科学家们说,下一步是要弄清楚这些孢子用什么分子语言来跨越障碍进行交流。

原文链接:

These fungal spores ‘talk’ to each other to find partners

原文摘要:

It turns out that even asexual fungal cells can be social: As they grow and fuse with one another to form colonies, they reach out toward some neighbors while snubbing others. Now, researchers working with one of these microbes—an orange, filamentous fungus known commonly as red bread mold—have discovered the genetic basis behind how their spores, or asexual reproductive units, communicate. That chatter happens when proteins on the spores’ fusing edges start forming and dissolving in sync with those of other individuals, across a gap as wide as 15 microns (as seen in the video, above). Working under a microscope, the scientists watched interactions between pairs of these spores from 110 genetically different wild strains of the fungus. Would unrelated spores still fuse together? They put the spores into three “communication groups,” batches of strains whose spores interacted and grew toward one another while seemingly ignoring others. Researchers then analyzed their genes and further divided the groups until they had five in total, each one differentiated by a set of three genes. To see what role the genes play in spore-to-spore communication, the researchers replaced the genes of one strain with those of a different group. They then analyzed the behavior of the mutant fungus. The altered strain acted like a member of the new group, suggesting the genes dictate group membership, the researchers report online today in PLOS Biology. This is one of the first times that scientists have found simple, genetically similar organisms that communicate across long distances—yeast and slime mold, in contrast, require direct contact. The next step, the scientists say, is to figure out what molecular language the spores use to chat across that gap.

来源: Science 浏览次数:1

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