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Science:你肠道里的细菌远不止你吃下去的那些

摘要 : 不管你喜欢与否,我们体内和体表的微生物在人类的健康和疾病中扮演着重要的角色。

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不管你喜欢与否,我们体内和体表的微生物在人类的健康和疾病中扮演着重要的角色。然而,我们仍然不知道是什么决定了这些无形社群的确切构成,以及它们在其种群内有何不同。现在,有两个大型研究表明,一度被认为是至关重要的因素——比如自然分娩还是剖腹产、哺乳、体重指数等——并没有研究者们之前想的那么重要。相反,《科学》上发表的这两项研究显示,用药——包括胃灼热药、抗生素,以及他汀类药物——和呼吸效率、便硬度、年龄一起都与微生物的组成有着更紧密的关联性。甚至巧克力的食用也会产生影响。这两项研究分别收集了1106位比利时人和1135位荷兰人的粪便样本,这些人同时提供了血样、填写了全面的健康和生活方式调查问卷,并且接受了医生的检查。这两队欧洲研究小组将研究结果与其它类似研究数据相结合后发现,95%的人共有14种微生物属,即相关微生物物种群,这表明存在一个核心人类微生物菌落。比利时研究小组报告称,总而言之,这两项研究测到600多属居住在人类体内的细菌。这些研究的一个目标是想知道是否有一个因素能很好地反映微生物菌落的整体健康状况。比利时研究小组看到大便流动性和微生物多样性之间的相关性,而荷兰研究小组把注意力集中在了一种叫嗜铬粒蛋白A的蛋白质上,这种蛋白标志着神经和内分泌系统的应激激活。荷兰研究小组报告说,这种蛋白质较低的浓度与更为多样化和功能性的微生物菌落相关。但两组研究人员均发现,所有他们能够与微生物多样性联系起来的因素的影响力均小于20%,这表明我们与我们的细菌之间的关系还有很多未知的领域亟待了解。

原文链接:

Your gut bacteria are more than what you eat

原文摘要:

Like it or not, the microbes in and on our bodies play a big role in human health and disease. Yet we still don’t know what determines the exact makeup of these invisible communities and how they vary within populations. Now, two large-scale studies show that factors once thought to be critical, such as natural versus cesarean birth, breastfeeding, or body mass index, don't matter as much as researchers had thought. Instead, medication—including heartburn medicine, antibiotics, and statins—breathing efficiency, stool consistency, and age all correlated better with microbiome composition, the two groups report today in Science. Even chocolate consumption has an effect. The studies—one of 1106 people in Belgium and another of 1135 people in the Netherlands—collected stool samples from people who gave blood, filled out extensive health and lifestyle questionnaires, and underwent doctor’s exams. When combined with data from other, similar studies, the two European efforts showed that 95% of people share 14 genera—groups of related microbial species—suggesting a core human microbiome exists. All told, the two studies netted more than 600 genera that inhabit the human body, the Belgian team reported. One goal of these efforts was to see whether any one factor is a good reflection of overall microbiome health. The Belgian group saw a correlation between stool runniness and microbial diversity, wheras the Dutch team homed in on a protein called chromogranin A, which signals stress-induced activation of the nervous and endocrine systems. Lower concentrations of this protein are associated with a more diverse, functional microbiome, that group reported. But both teams found that all the factors they were able to link to microbial diversity have less than a 20% impact, suggesting there's a lot more to be learned about our relationship with our bacteria.

来源: Science 浏览次数:0

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