DOI：10.1126/science.aad4647 作者：Virginia Morell
摘要 : 狗狗不仅善于读懂同胞的肢体语言，还十分擅长通过解读人类面部表情来感知其意图及情绪。与人一样，狗研究的是人右眼周围、往往最能体现人类情感的那部分区域。
狗狗不仅善于读懂同胞的肢体语言，还十分擅长通过解读人类面部表情来感知其意图及情绪。与人一样，狗研究的是人右眼周围、往往最能体现人类情感的那部分区域。然而，狗和人类在社会阅读技巧方面究竟有哪些类似和区别?在一次创新实验中，科学家们让狗和受试人观察日常场景并记录其反应。研究者一共记录了46条狗和26个受试人分别在观察二人拥抱、二人互相走开、二狗打招呼和二狗互相把脸转开这四种场景下的眼球运动情况。经过训练，狗狗们在照片出现后趴下、面向监视器，和受试人一起观看相同的照片。与此同时，眼球追踪设备负责记录他们目光的焦点。结果显示，两者均对拥抱或互动的场景注视时间较长，而对互相走开或把脸转过去的场景注视时间较短。如图所示，红圈和篮圈分别显示了狗和受试人的注意力焦点，圈越大则表明注视时间越长;直线表示视线转移路径。狗狗如同小婴儿般对社交性场景比非社交性场景更为关注的事实表明，它们能够很快识别出那些人类互动的场面，也对此更加感兴趣。然而，比较两幅图片中的大红圈可以看出，狗狗凝视人类拥抱画面所用的时间远远超出它们看同类打招呼的时间。它们的目光在拥抱者之间游移，说明需要更多时间来解读图中人物动作的含义。同样的，与看同类拥抱相比，受试人会花费更多时间去关注狗狗之间打招呼，视线在狗狗之间转移也更为频繁。今日在线发表在《皇家学会开放科学》(Royal Society Open Science)中的这一研究称，注视时间和眼球运动的差异表明，即便表情破解专家在解读异类的神秘表情时也往往需要付出更多努力。
Dogs are experts at reading other dogs’ body language, and also at interpreting human faces for cues as to intention and mood. Like people, dogs study the area around the eyes on the right side of a person’s face, wher human emotions appear most intensely. But exactly how similar are dogs’ social reading skills to our own, and vice versa? In a first experiment of its kind, scientists compared humans and dogs when looking at everyday scenes. They recorded 46 dogs’ and 26 humans’ eye movements when watching two people hugging or walking away from each other, and when looking at two dogs greeting or facing away. Each dog was trained to lie down and face a monitor wher photos appeared, and the people looked at the same images. As the dogs and people looked at images, an eye-tracking device recorded the focus of their gaze. Dogs and people both gazed longer at scenes showing hugging or interaction than they did at images showing people or dogs facing away, as shown in the photo above, in which red circles show the areas the dogs were most intent on and blue circles show wher people fixated. (The larger the circle, the more time the dog or person spent looking at an area; lines show the path that the eyes traveled across the image.) Human babies also prefer looking at social versus nonsocial scenes, and that dogs do this, too, suggests that, like humans of all ages, they can readily spot—and are more interested in—scenes in which people interact. But the dogs watched the photos of people hugging far longer than they did the pictures of dogs greeting each other, as shown by the large red circles; their eyes also moved back and forth between the two human characters, suggesting that they needed more time to interpret their postures. For their part, the humans spent more time looking at the greeting dogs than at people hugging, and their eyes traveled more between the two dogs, the scientists report online today in Royal Society Open Science.The additional watching time and eye movements suggest that the task of interpreting the other species’ cryptic expressions takes extra effort, the scientists say—even for experts.
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