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Science:把一条鱼逐出鱼群就变得更笨?

标签: 鱼群 学习
摘要 : 把它鱼群聚集在一起,原因非常简单:人多势众。但对于一些鱼群来说,黏在一起得到的不仅仅是保护。这还是“出人头地”的一种方式。群聚的鱼儿互相学习。

 fish-school

把它鱼群聚集在一起,原因非常简单:人多势众。但对于一些鱼群来说,黏在一起得到的不仅仅是保护。这还是“出人头地”的一种方式。群聚的鱼儿互相学习。而新研究表明,当把单条鱼从它们所处的正常社会群体中分离出来,它们只好挣扎着独立学习。科学家们早就知道,群聚的鱼会观察彼此的失败和成功并从中学习,这种行为可以刺激神经发育,特别是负责记忆和学习的那部分大脑的神经。但是,这是他们第一次在空间学习领域发现这种联系的证据。为了验证他们的理论,科学家将一群社会型丽鲷分为两类:14只社交鱼和15只“独行侠”。研究人员将社交鱼放在一起让其成群,而将独行的鱼放入单独的鱼缸隔离。他们接着将所有的鱼放进一个简单的T形迷宫,并用颜色标识出有实物的一端——黄色标志着放有食品,绿色则没有。 14条社会鱼中有7条学会将黄色同食品关联在一起(对丽鲷这种并非动物王国最聪明的鱼来说算是高分),而15条独行鱼中只有3条成功地发现了这一关联。研究人员在本月出版的《应用动物行为科学》上写道,这表明鱼群中的鱼能够比它们那些被单独挑出的同伴学得更好、更快。这寓意着什么呢?很简单:鱼儿应该呆在鱼群里。

原文链接:

Isolation impairs cognition in a social fish

原文摘要:

In variable environments, animals can learn to alter their behavior to adjust to changes. Sometimes, however, this learning ability can be impaired. For example, challenges in the social or physical environment can trigger physiological responses that compromise an individual's capacity to learn and these can prevent the animal from modifying its behavior to cope with the altered environment. One such disruption that might affect learning ability is the isolation of an individual that would normally live in a social group. To investigate the effects of isolation on cognition, we tested whether social isolation impairs learning skills in a cichlid fish, Cichlasoma paranaense. Two treatments were compared, one with isolated individuals and another with fish housed as part of a social group. Cognition was assessed in terms of the fish learning to associate a visual landmark with an accessible food reward. Fish searched for a food reward in a T-maze: a green or a yellow visual landmark signaled which chamber contained accessible food. Learning was assumed when a fish was able to find the food in nine out of ten trials. All fish, regardless of treatment, found it challenging to reach the learning criterion, but fewer isolated fish (3 out of 15 fish) were likely to learn the task compared to fish housed socially (7 out of 14 fish) (Bayesian logistic regression with 95% of chance that the two treatments differ). The results therefore suggest that social isolation for a normally social species of fish can impair learning. Furthermore, given that fish sometimes need to be isolated to treat them in a specific way, or to monitor an individual's response during a test, our results suggest that there may be some welfare implications for the way we treat and use social species of fish in empirical studies.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.08.026

来源: Science 浏览次数:0

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