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Science:科学家们揭示美洲鳗神秘迁徙的秘密

摘要 : 科学家们第一次得以一路追踪美洲鳗(Anguilla rostrata,如图所示)到它们在海上的产卵地,那是一段从它们长大成熟的淡水常居地开始的至少1,600公里的迁徙。

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科学家们第一次得以一路追踪美洲鳗(Anguilla rostrata,如图所示)到它们在海上的产卵地,那是一段从它们长大成熟的淡水常居地开始的至少1,600公里的迁徙。无论是研究人员还是渔民都不曾在公开海域捕捉到过成年鳗鱼,但很明显,它们肯定在那里呆过,因为在一个多世纪以前,科学家们曾在北大西洋的马尾藻海发现过疑似的美洲鳗产卵地。现在,通过使用追踪装置,研究人员终于绘制出了这种弯弯扭扭的鱼的一些迁徙路线,并开始了解到了一点有关它们在海上的栖息地的信息。这些装置中的一些用来测量水温和水深,其它则测量温度以及地球磁场的强度和密度。在2012年至2014年的夏天,研究人员在加拿大新斯科舍的南部海岸放生了38只美洲鳗,其中28只的追踪器最终浮出水面,并通过卫星发布数据(其中包括两个放置在显然已被猎食的鳗鱼身上的追踪器)。研究人员今天在《自然通信》的网络版上报告说,其中有6只被追踪了一个多月,最远的一只迁移了近1,600公里到达一个略低于马尾藻海北部边缘的点。这些美洲鳗显然是通过两个阶段从北美大陆的淡水水域迁移:第一步,它们在表层水和海底之间沿着大陆架浅水区漫游,其间或许通过尝试深层水的盐度和温度来确定自己的位置和路线。然后,在通过大陆架边缘之后,它们直线向南,在晚上贴近洋面游弋,而在白天则深潜到700米左右的水域,或许是为了躲避天敌。

相关文章:Nat Com:揭示鳗鱼的神秘的迁徙

原文链接:

Scientists finally reveal mysterious migration of American eels

原文摘要:

For the first time, American eels (Anguilla rostrata, shown) have been tracked on the way to their spawning grounds at sea, a migration of at least 1600 kilometers from the freshwater haunts wher they matured. Neither researchers nor fishermen have ever caught an adult eel in the open ocean, but it’s clear they must spend time there because scientists discovered their presumed spawning grounds in the North Atlantic’s Sargasso Sea more than a century ago. Now, using tracking devices, researchers have finally mapped the migration routes of a few of those wriggly fish—and learned a little about their habits at sea to boot. Some of the devices measured water temperature and depth, and others measured temperature and the strength and intensity of Earth’s magnetic field. Of the 38 eels released off the southern coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, in the summers of 2012 through 2014, trackers on 28 of them eventually popped to the surface to broadcast data to the researchers via satellite (including two attached to eels that were apparently consumed by predators). Six of the animals were tracked for more than a month, with the longest migration stretching almost 1600 kilometers to a point just shy of the northern edge of the Sargasso Sea, the researchers report online today in Nature Communications. The eels apparently migrate from fresh waters on the North American continent in two phases: First, in shallow waters along the continental shelf, the wrigglers swim between surface waters and the bottom, possibly sampling the salinity and temperature of deeper waters to ascertain their location and route. Then, after the eels pass the edge of the shelf, they make a beeline southward, swimming near the ocean’s surface at night and then diving to depths of about 700 meters during daylight hours, possibly to avoid predators.

来源: Science 浏览次数:0

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