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当前位置: Science » 植物&动物 » Science:土拨鼠做冷血杀手有回报


标签:土拨鼠 竞争
摘要 : “吃或者被吃。”有人说,这是动物界的金科玉律,但有些土拨鼠杀生并不是为了一顿饭,而是为了消除竞争。


“吃或者被吃。”有人说,这是动物界的金科玉律,但有些土拨鼠杀生并不是为了一顿饭,而是为了消除竞争。白尾土拨鼠(Cynomys leucurus)和怀俄明州黄鼠(Urocitellus elegans)吃同样的草,生活在同一片草原上,有时甚至使用相同的洞穴。这样的近身距离和共同的口味直接导致两个物种站在了对立面,为食物而争斗。在对科罗拉多州的土拨鼠研究了六年之后,研究人员发现土拨鼠追杀黄鼠达100次以上,今日于《英国皇家学会会刊B》上发表的一篇文章报告了这一研究结果。在大多数的这些案例中,土拨鼠除了会稍稍地嚼食对手,更多的则是在杀戮之后直接离开,把整个尸体留给食腐动物为食。大多数的土拨鼠杀手是雌性,她们犯下的“谋杀罪”越多,就能养育越多的后代。那些每年至少杀死两只黄鼠的连环杀手们一生中成功养育的后代是那些不杀生的土拨鼠的三倍。这是科学家们首次证明这类杀戮实际上有利于野生环境下的杀手。考虑到研究人员花费了四年的时间来研究土拨鼠才注意到这些杀戮,他们表示这类杀戮行为可能也广泛且隐蔽地存在于其它动物之中。


Prairie dogs reap rewards from being cold-blooded killers


"Eat or be eaten,” some say, is the golden rule of the animal world. But some prairie dogs kill—not for a meal—but to take out the competition. White-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) and Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) eat the same grasses, live in the same prairies, and sometimes even use the same burrows. These close quarters and shared tastes pit the two species directly against each other in competition for food. Over 6 years of studying the prairie dogs in Colorado, researchers saw them chase and kill ground squirrels more than 100 times, according to a study published online today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Other than a bit of chewing, in most of these instances the prairie dog simply walked away afterward, leaving the whole carcass as food for scavengers. The more squirrel murders these mostly female prairie dogs committed, the more offspring they were able to raise. And serial killers—those that killed at least two squirrels per year—successfully raised three times the offspring of nonkillers over the course of their lives. This is the first time scientists have shown that these sorts of killings actually benefit the killer in the wild. And given that it took researchers 4 years of studying prairie dogs to even notice the murders, they say it may be widespread—but sneaky—in other animals, too.

来源: Science 浏览次数:0


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