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Science:农场的蜜蜂种类越多果实越甜美

标签:蜜蜂 植物 花粉
摘要 : 全球有2500多种蜜蜂物种给植物授粉,研究表明拥有各种各样的授粉蜜蜂能够提高庄稼产量,并自然控制害虫。

全球有2500多种蜜蜂物种给植物授粉,研究表明拥有各种各样的授粉蜜蜂能够提高庄稼产量,并自然控制害虫。

然而,在很多农场环境中却仅能发现一种蜜蜂:欧洲蜜蜂意蜂。数千年的驯养让这种昆虫可以在各种各样的情况下授粉,但本土野生蜜蜂(如图所示金属绿色蜜蜂)需要本土的栖息地,而在农业环境中这样的栖息地通常不够。

根据2月19日在美国科学促进会上报告的一项新成果,农民可以通过让田野里的庄稼多样化,来吸引种类更多的蜜蜂物种。

研究人员观察了美国加州中部的15个农场,一些农场仅种植草莓,一些则将草莓和花椰菜、树莓、甘蓝混合种植。他们发现,多样化的农场有若干种蜜蜂在匆忙授粉,而仅种植着草莓的田地里只有欧洲蜜蜂在授粉。当观察地点位于自然植物园附近时,蜜蜂物种多样性进一步增加。

来自多样化种植农场的草莓也更饱满、结实,且更对称,所有这些特性都让农民更容易销售这些水果。研究人员表示,其他的庄稼也会受益于这个过程,在庄稼中间种植灌木篱墙,可以为与自然环境隔离的农场提供原生植被吸引蜜蜂。

原文链接:

A variety of bee species down on the farm leads to juicier fruits

原文摘要:

There are more than 2500 bee species around the world that pollinate plants, and research has shown that having a variety of pollinators can boost crop yields and naturally control pests. Yet in many farm environments, there’s only one bee to be found: Apis mellifera, the European honey bee. Thousands of years of domestication have made this insect able to pollinate under a wide variety of circumstances, but native wild bees (such as this metallic green bee) need native habitat, which is often in short supply in agricultural environments. According to new findings reported here today at the annual meeting of AAAS, which publishes Science, farmers can invite greater bee diversity in their fields by diversifying their crops. Researchers looked at 15 farms in central California, some of which grew only strawberries and some of which grew strawberries along with other crops like broccoli, raspberries, and kale. They found that several different bee species buzzed around the diversified farms, wheras only the European honey bee pollinated the strawberry-only ones. Being located near natural vegetation further increased bee species diversity. The strawberries from these diversified farms were plumper, firmer and more symmetrical—all qualities that make the fruit more marketable for farmers. Other crops would also likely benefit from this process, the researcher noted, and planting hedgerows between crops could provide native vegetation for farms isolated from the natural environment.

来源: Science 浏览次数:0

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